BORROWINGS IN KAZAKH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES
BORROWINGS IN KAZAKH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES
Vocabulary of any language is enriched with the borrowings from other languages due to historical, economical and cultural interchanges among different nations, Different types of cooperation result in new words and new notions. There is enormous amount of words in the Kazakh language borrowed from other languages. 'There are some examples taken from the ancient Greek: republic, grammar, bulletin, symphony, balcony, opera, cash-desk, and cashier.
From Latin: Geometry, physics, economics, thermometer, telegraph, telephone, television. Some words consist of two parts: one from Greek, another from Latin e.g. television — "tele" (Greek) vision - visualis - (Latin), from the English language: cowboy, club, station, rail, railway, wheel rail.
From French: bureau, depot, partisan, vanguard and meter. From German: uniform, officer, staff, mattress and others. It should be mentioned that at first jail these words appeared in Russian and then via Russian were adopted in the Kazakh language. [1; 63]
There are many loan words in the Kazakh language which came from different languages and it happens not only with Kazakh, it is a result of long lasted communication of many people from different countries. [2; 8]
The new words in the Kazakh language called borrowings have joined the word - stock of Kazakh in different centuries. Russian, Arabian, Iranian, Mongolian and some Turkic languages were sources of lexical borrowings for the Kazakh language. Kazakh refers to the Turkic branch of Altaic language family.
The words including in the Kazakh language from other languages called borrowing words. The plenty of words from other languages has joined lexicon of the Kazakh language in different time.
Sources of lexical borrowings for the Kazakh language were Russian, Arabian, Iranian, Mongolian, Turkic languages and some others.
Kazakh is a member of the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family. It is closely related to Kyrgyz. Like all Turkic languages, it is believed to have descended from Chagatai Turkic, an extinct Turkic language which once served as a lingua franca in Central Asia. The word Chagatai relates to the Chagatai Khanate, the western part of the Mongol empire, left to Genghis Khan's second son Chagatai Khan. Chagatai Turkic was written with the Arabic alphabet and was influenced by Arabic and Persian. In the 14th century, the Chagatai Khanate was conquered by Timur, a native of Samarkand. Timur's successors were later ousted from the Chagatai Khanate by the Uzbeks. The Kazakhs originated as dissident Uzbeks during the same period. Both groups became part of the Soviet Union in 1917. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan became independent countries.
Kazakh (along with Russian) has been the official language of the Republic of Kazakhstan since 1989. It is spoken by some 6.5 million people; most of them are ethnic Kazakhs, It is also spoken in Afghanistan, China, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The total number of speakers of Kazakh is estimated at 8 million (Ethnologic). Interestingly, Germany has a number of Kazakh-speaking Volga Germans who were deported by I. Stalin to Kazakhstan in 1941, and who subsequently returned to Germany after the Soviet Union collapse.
Modern Kazakh literary language is rather rich and original; it has well – developed lexical synonymy system. There are many words with similar meaning; for example: ddeMi, dceM, cpiy, OKWidaM, me3, uianiuaif, ne3de; beautiful- handsome-fine; rapid- fast-quick.
The study of the Kazakh language started more than hundred years ago, the first who dealt with the Kazakh language linguistics were Russian scientists. We may state that since that time Kazakh literary language has formed finally stylistically it has become flexible, grammatically more perfect and lexis richer and more interesting. 
The words from other languages have penetrated into the different historical periods in the Old Kazakh language. It was caused by that the Kazakh people entered economic, cultural, political cooperation with other peoples, including wars, concluded military unions. In the Kazakh language 4 types borrowings can be allocated: from the Arabian, Persian, Mongolian and Russian languages.
The borrowings from the Arabian and Persian languages refer to the first type.
Not all words which were borrowed from the Arabian and Persian language have come in the Kazakh language, but there are such words which have become radical and have given a basis for formation of new words such as: authority, economy, post, mind (wit), god, force, power, news, animal an animal, and dispute. On the whole, borrowing in the Kazakh language includes several groups:
From the Arabian and Persian languages
a) Were connected to the public relation, way of life, household articles: mirror, a towel, a curtain
b) Were connected with a science, culture: the handle, paper, school, holiday, examination, book, history, and mosque.
c) Connected with religious faith: the God, sin, edification, profit, woman, eyebrow, oraza (fasting), edification.
d) The words with expressive, emotional meaning, and these words give the special stylistic colour For example: love, ray, bismillah, life, advantage, status, edification, noble, quality, amazing, astaphyralla (means fright, astonishment) inshalla ( thank God)
generous, God, appearance, the Sahara( desert) passion, dawn, good deed, sweep, strength, natural, calamity, teacher, fate, scientist, wonderful, destiny, yatagala ( O, my God).
e) Literary words which from the use or less common. For example: shahar (city), shyragdan (candle), vizier, millat, gazal, sabat, darcer.
f) Some words from local dialects; manpagat (household articles), sada (will-bread), kaibart (gossip), kodek (a baby) mysh (fist) badiren (cucumber) danden (tooth pick) zhualdyz (needleO name) bipaya (shameless);
The Arabian word "shiny" "glass" has many different meanings in the Kazakh language. For example the word such as a window, a bottle, a cup the Kazakh people can say only with one word "glass".
And the Persian word "bazaar" (market) also has different meanings. In the following expressions the word "bazaar" (not as market) has another meaning as "feast"; "holiday".
During the use the most part of the words which have come from the Arabian, Persian language assimilated to structure of the Kazakh language. As you see from these examples many words gradually assimilated in and language to enter into structure in general use of lexicon and they actually stopped to perceive as foreign ones.
They are actually perceived as Kazakh words, though they were borrowed from other languages. "Any people, carrier and creator of this or that language do not live by the perfectly isolated separate life." (2)
The words from the Arabian and Persian languages were borrowed from the old time. In Central and East Asia Arabian was international language. (3; 19)
From Mongolian language
The borrowings from the Mongol ian language also have played a significant role in enrichment of the Kazakh language especially in sphere of war terminology.
At the same time with words of the Arabian and Persian languages Kazakh lexicon, at different stages of its development, includes Teopemu HccKiie eonpochi odyneniiH unocmpannbi also borrowings from Mongolian language. To early borrowings historical Lexicology concerns household words, when two states were the neighbors. The second stage penetration of the Mongolian words into the Kazakh language has taken place in XII century. When Mongolian khanate has won the territory of Kazakhstan and Central Asia.
The words from the Mongolian language have penetrated into the Kazakh language from the old time as Kazakh khanate was the neighbors with Mongolian tribes. 
As the result of it was early trade and cultural communications, military unions and armed conflict. The following Kazakh borrowings from the Mongolian languages appeared in XII- XV centuries.
Ulus (people, social), noker (warrior of private security), zhasak (troops, detachment), noyan (legendary hero), kuryltai (constituent assembly), kray (administrative division) and others.
Geographical names; Tarbagatai, Tolagai, Katongarai, Bayan aul, Dolankara, Zaissan, Nura, Karagazhyn, Altai and Narynkol.
There are words in the Kazakh vocabulary which have the same meanings in Mongolian language. For example: catch (aulau) [avlah], animal (an) [an], needle (teben) [teben], you can see the common words at the same time in Mongolian and Turkic languages. About these kinds of words Ch. Ualihanov told in his works.
In conclusion, the tendency of the English language to borrow extensively can be traced during the centuries. Thus, one can confidently claim that borrowing is one of the most productive sources of enrichment of the English vocabulary. The same phenomena happen in the Kazakh language as we have shown.
1. ShainskiN.M. Lexicology of modern Russian language. M., 1992.
2. Rustemov L.Z. Arabian and Persian borrowings in modern Kazakh language. 1982.
3. Кеңесбаева І., Мұсабаев Ғ. Қазіргі қазақ тілі. Лексика , фонетика,1975.
4. Әбдірахманов А. Топонимика және этимология, Алматы,1975.
This article was written about borrowings in Kazakh language. Vocabulary of any language is enriched with the borrowings from other languages due to historical, economical and cultural interchanges among different nations. Different types of cooperation result in new words and new notions.
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